- IVF, In Vitro Fertilization, is a technique that consists of fertilization outside the body of the mother. It is practiced with the sperm fertilizing oocytes from women in liquid medium. This process, which is morecommonly used once the other processes of assisted reproduction have not worked. The process involves the hormonal control of the process of ovulation, extracting one or several oocytes of the maternal ovaries, to allow them to be fertilized by sperm in a liquid medium. The fertilized oocyte or preembryo can then be transferred to the uterus of the woman, in order to nest in the uterus and continue its development until birth
- Initially IVF was developed to overcome situations of infertility due to problems in the fallopian tubes, but subsequently it was observed that the technique had success also in other cases of infertility. The introduction of the intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) largely solves the problems of male infertility. For an IVF treatment to have success, it is necessary to have healthy oocytes, sperm that can fertilise them, and a uterus that can maintain a pregnancy. IVF can also be used in menopausal women, using eggs from a donor. It is also a technique that can be seen in patients that have undergone a total or partial loss of fertility due to aggressive treatment with a serious disease (such as cancer).
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